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The IEA "Net Zero by 2050" Report
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The IAE roadmap for acheiving net-zero emissions globally by 2050 includes massive spending on renewable energy, dramatic curtailing of fossil fuel use, and controversial "behavioral changes" to nudge human beings into less carbon-intensive lifestyles. 

The IAE models several cases. The Stated Policies Scenario (STEPS) case includes only firm policies announced or implemented by countries. The Announced Pledges Case (APC) assumes all announced net-zero targets by countries will be fully met on time. 

The Net-Zero Emissions by 2050 Scenario (NZE) is the IAE's proposed pathway to actually achieve net-zero emissions by 2050 (a 50% chance of success). This breakdown will mainly focus on this scenario. 

40% of companies that have announced net-zero pledges have no plan to achieve them

Going "net-zero" by 2050 would only give a 50% chance of avoiding a 1.5 degree C temperature increase

This scenario would also require more drastic emission reduction pledges from all governments

Universal access to "sustainable" energy by 2030 with a 7% drop in total energy supply

While the global economy doubles by 2050 and the population increases by 2 billion

No new fossil fuel exploration, no new coal mines

Oil prices are expected to drop to $35 per barrel by 2030, and $25 per barrel in 2050.

Government restrictions on fossil fuel usage to blunt increased demand in response to low prices

Government regulations to eliminate sales of internal combustion engine vehicles

Global Carbon taxes, with lower rates for China and Russia

2030-2050 emissions reductions modeled on unproven technology

Carbon footprint of people in advanced economies drops to levels of people in developing nations by 2030

90% of electricity generated by renewables by 2050

Eliminating new internal combustion engine vehicle sales by 2035

"Behavioral changes" to drive down emissions

People will have their behavior modified by "government interventions" in three ways:

- Reducing excessive or wasteful energy use: instituting global maximum speed limit, maximum thermostat settings, appliance standards

- Transport mode switching: restricting air travel, shifting to high speed rail, restricting car use in cities in favor of buses and bicycles  

- Materials efficiency gains: recycling mandates, green building standards

Global maximum speed limit would be 100 km/hour (62 mi/hour)

No cooling thermostat setting below 75 degrees F, no heating thermostat setting above 68 degrees F

Congestion pricing and targeted taxes for non-green vehicles

Distance-based insurance and registration fees

Mandatory requirements for companies to disclose their carbon emissions 

Share of electric cars in stock increases from 1% in 2020, to 20% in 2030, to 86% in 2050

54% of all motorcycles sold are electric by 2030, 100% by 2050

420 million additional heat pumps installed by 2030 (167,330 per working day), 1.8 billion installed by 2050

60% electricity from renewables by 2030, 90% by 2050

54% of all motorcycles sold are electric by 2030, 100% by 2050

420 million additional heat pumps installed by 2030 (167,330 per working day), 1.8 billion installed by 2050

Massive increase in hydrogen and hydrogen based-fuels

Elimination of biomass for cooking currently used by 2.34 billion people by 2030

Massive increase in Carbon Capture

From 40 Mt captured in 2020 to 1,670 Mt in 2030, to 7,600 Mt in 2050

Massive increase in annual investment in energy

From $2.3 trillion/year globally in 2020, to $5 trillion/year in 2030 

Massive increases in funding for EV batteries, industry electrification, and hydrogen

Annual hydrogen investment reaches $165 billion by 2030, and over 470 billion by 2050

Annual carbon capture investment reaches $160 billion by 2050

Reduction of demand for meat consumption to minimize livestock emissions

All lightbulbs sold are LEDs by 2025, mandated smart appliances

New taxes to offset lost tax revenue from fossil fuels

Carbon taxes, road fees and congestion charges, and increasing taxes on electricity

5 million eliminated oil and gas jobs

Over 4 million acres of new solar panels by 2030

Roughly the size of New Jersey

Additional 75 million rooftop solar installations by 2030, 215 million by 2050

Almost 30,000 installations per working day

Ten heavy industrial equipped with Carbon Capture every month (more than 2 a week)

Most new clean tech functional by 2035

50% of heavy truck sales are electric by 2035

39 million public EV charging points installed by 2030

Almost 120,000 per working day